Toilet Paper

 

A roll of toilet paper.

 

Toilet paper and toilet paper holder.

Toilet paper is a soft facial tissues are not. Toilet paper can be one-, two- or three-ply, or even thicker, meaning that it is either a single sheet or multiple sheets placed back-to-back to make it thicker, softer, stronger and more absorbent.

The use of paper for such hygiene purposes has been recorded in China in the 6th century, with specifically manufactured toilet paper being mass produced in the 14th century. Modern commercial toilet paper originated in the 19th century, with a patent for roll-based dispensers being made in 1883.

Different names, dunny roll/paper,” “bathroom/toilet tissue,” “TP,” “arsewipe,” and just “tissue.”

 

Contents

[edit] History

 

Anal cleansing instruments known as Japan. The modern rolls in the background are for size comparison.

Although Yan Zhitui (531–591) wrote about the use of toilet paper:

“Paper on which there are quotations or commentaries from the Five Classics or the names of sages, I dare not use for toilet purposes”.[2]

During the later Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD), an Arab traveller to China in the year 851 AD remarked:

“…they [the Chinese] do not [2]

During the early 14th century, it was recorded that in modern-day [2]

Elsewhere, wealthy people wiped themselves with sponge on a stick was commonly used, and, after usage, placed back in a bucket of saltwater. Several talmudic sources indicating ancient Jewish practice refer to the use of small pebbles, often carried in a special bag, and also to the use of dry grass and of the smooth edges of broken pottery jugs (e.g., Shabbat 81a, 82a, Yevamot 59b). These are all cited in the classic Biblical and Talmudic Medicine by the German physician Julius Preuss (Eng. trans. Sanhedrin Press, 1978).

 

A print by Barton Booth rehearsing a pantomime play with puppets enacting a prison break down a privy. The “play” is composed of nothing but toilet paper, and the scripts for Hamlet, inter al., are toilet paper.

The 16th century French satirical writer François Rabelais, in Chapter XIII of Book 1 of his novel-sequence Gargantua and Pantagruel, has his character Gargantua investigate a great number of ways of cleansing oneself after defecating. Gargantua dismisses the use of paper as ineffective, rhyming that: “Who his foul tail with paper wipes, Shall at his ballocks leave some chips.” (Sir Thomas Urquhart‘s 1653 English translation). He concludes that “the neck of a goose, that is well downed” provides an optimum cleansing medium.[3]

In many parts of the world, especially where toilet paper or the necessary plumbing for disposal may be unavailable or unaffordable, toilet paper is not used. Also, in many parts of the world such as India, people consider using water a much cleaner and more sanitary practice than using paper.soap.

[edit] As a commodity

 

Le Troubadour” (French) – 1960s package of toilet paper

Joseph Gayetty is widely credited with being the inventor of modern commercially available toilet paper in the United States. Gayetty’s paper, first introduced in 1857, was available as late as the 1920s. Gayetty’s Medicated Paper was sold in packages of flat sheets, watermarked with the inventor’s name. Original advertisements for the product used the tagline “The greatest necessity of the age! Gayetty’s medicated paper for the water-closet.”

Seth Wheeler of Albany, New York, obtained the earliest United States patents for toilet paper and dispensers, the types of which eventually were in common usage in that country, in 1883.[5]

Moist toilet paper was first introduced in the menstruation.

Twenty-six billion rolls of toilet paper, worth about US$2.4 billion, are sold yearly in America alone. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per capita a year.[6]

[edit] Description

Toilet paper is available in several types of paper, a variety of patterns, decorations, and textures, and it may be moistened or perfumed, although fragrances sometimes cause problems for users who are allergic to perfumes. The average measures of a modern roll of toilet paper is ~10 cm (3 15/16 in.) wide, ø 12 cm (4 23/32 in.) and weighs about 227 grams (8 oz.).[7]

[edit] Materials

Toilet paper products vary greatly in the distinguishing technical factors: sizes, weights, roughness, softness, chemical residues, “finger-breakthrough” resistance, water-absorption, etc. The larger companies have very detailed, scientific market surveys to determine which marketing sectors require/demand which of the many technical qualities. Modern toilet paper may have a light coating of aloe or lotion or wax worked into the paper to reduce roughness.

Quality is usually determined by the number of plies (stacked sheets), coarseness, and durability. Low grade institutional toilet paper is typically of the lowest grade of paper, has only one or two plies, is very coarse and sometimes contains small amounts of embedded unbleached/unpulped paper. Mid-grade two ply is somewhat textured to provide some softness and is somewhat stronger. Premium toilet paper may have lotion and wax and has two to four plies of very finely pulped paper. If it is marketed as “luxury”, it may be quilted or rippled (embossed), perfumed, colored or patterned, medicated (with anti-bacterial chemicals), or treated with aloe or other perfumes.

In order to advance decomposition of the paper in septic tanks or drainage, the paper used has shorter fibres than facial tissue or writing paper. The manufacturer tries to reach an optimal balance between rapid decomposition (which requires shorter fibres) and sturdiness (which requires longer fibres).

A German quip says that the toilet paper of Nazi Germany was so rough and scratchy that it was almost unusable, so many people used old issues of the Völkischer Beobachter instead because the paper was softer.[8]

[edit] Color and design

Colored toilet paper in colors such as pink, citation needed]

Today, in the United States, plain unpatterned colored toilet paper has been mostly replaced by patterned toilet paper, normally white, with embossed decorative patterns or designs in various colors and different sizes depending on the brand. Colored toilet paper remains commonly available in some European countries.

[edit] Installation

[edit] Dispensers

A toilet roll holder, also known as a toilet paper dispenser, is an item that holds a roll of toilet paper. There are at least seven types of holders:

  1. A horizontal piece of wire mounted on a hinge, hanging from a door or wall.
  2. A horizontal axle recessed in the wall.
  3. A vertical axle recessed in the wall
  4. A horizontal axle mounted on a freestanding frame.
  5. A freestanding vertical pole on a base.
  6. A wall mounted dispensing unit, usually containing more than one roll. This is used in the commercial / away from home marketplace.
  7. A wall mounted dispensing unit with tissue interfolded in a “S” type leave so the user can extract the tissue one sheet at a time.

[edit] Orientation

There are two choices of orientation when using a holder with a American consumers and of bath and kitchen specialists, 60-70% of respondents prefer over.

[edit] Decoration

Toilegami refers to toilet paper origami. Like table napkins, some fancy Japanese hotels fold the first squares of toilet paper on its dispenser to be presented in a fashionable way.[9]

[edit] Mechanics

[12]

Toilet paper has been used in [16]

[edit] Usage

[edit] Environmental considerations

One tree produces about 100 pounds (45 kg) of toilet paper and about 83 million rolls are produced per day.[17]

The average American uses 50 pounds (23 kg) of tissue paper per year which is 50% more than the average of Western countries or Japan.[21] which may distort the usage statistics.

As of 2009, between 25% and 50% of the toilet paper used in the United States comes from tree farms in the U.S. and South America, with most of the rest coming from second growth forests, and only a small percentage coming from virgin forests.[6]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 122.
  2. ^ f Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 123.
  3. ^ François Rabelais (20 April 2007). “Gargantua and Pantagruel”. The University of Adelaide, Australia: eBooks@Adelaide. http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/r/rabelais/francois/r11g/book1.13.html. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  4. ^ Sheri Trusty (21 February 2012). “Teen takes mission trip to India”. Fremont, Ohio: The News-Messenger. http://www.thenews-messenger.com/article/20120221/NEWS01/202210308/Teen-takes-mission-trip-India. Retrieved 5 March 2012. “ ’In most of India, they don’t use toilet paper. They use water and their left hands,’ Ollervides said. ‘That’s what the left hand is for.’ ”
  5. ^ The first of note is for the idea of perforating commercial papers (25 July 1871, #117355), the application for which includes an illustration of a perforated roll of paper. On 13 February 1883 he was granted patent #272369, which presented a roll of perforated wrapping or toilet paper supported in the center with a tube. Wheeler also had patents for mounted brackets that held the rolls. See also Joseph Nathan Kane, “Famous First Facts: A Record of First Happenings, Discoveries and Inventions in the United States” (H. W. Wilson: 1964), p. 434; Harper’s Magazine, volume. Q, 1941-1943 (Harper’s Magazine Co.:1941), p. 181; Jules Heller, “Paper Making” (Watson-Guptill:1978), p. 193.
  6. ^ “Mr. Whipple Left It Out: Soft Is Rough on Forests” by Leslie Kaufman, The New York Times, 25 February 2009, Retrieved 2-26-09.
  7. ^ http://www.toiletpaperhistory.net/toilet-paper-facts/toilet-paper-fun-facts/.
  8. ^ Read, Anthony and Fisher, David The Fall of Berlin London: Pimlico, 1993.
  9. ^ “Toilet Paper Origami”. Origami Resource Center. http://www.origami-resource-center.com/toilet-paper-origami.html.
  10. Balankin, Susarrey Huerta & Bravo 2001.
  11. Balankin et al. 2002.
  12. Balankin & Matamoros 2002.
  13. Harkay 2006.
  14. Goodwin 1985.
  15. Walker 1975.
  16. Ehrlich 1997.
  17. ^ “Toilet paper wipes out 27,000 trees a day – National Geographic’s Green Guide”. Blogs.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-04-16. http://blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/thegreenguide/2010/04/27000-trees-a-day-used-for-toilet-tissue.html. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
  18. ^ “Soft Tissue Paper is Hard on the Environment”. Simple Ecology. 2009-08-22. http://www.simpleecology.com/eco/soft-tissue-paper.html.
  19. ^ “Euro-style Personal Hygiene With the Bidet”. hgtv.com. 2012-02-27. http://www.hgtv.com/decorating/euro-style-personal-hygiene-with-the-bidet/index.html.
  20. ^ Lindsey (2009-02-26). “Destroying forests to make toilet paper is “worse than driving Hummers”". Green Peace. http://members.greenpeace.org/blog/greenpeaceusa_blog/2009/02/26/destroying_forest_to_make_toilet_paper_i.
  21. ^ “Toilet paper Oil Filters”. Frantzoil.com. 1970-01-01. http://www.frantzoil.com/TOILETPAPER.html. Retrieved 2012-02-26.

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

Source: Wikipedia